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Regional and phenological effects of Tunisian Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) essential oil leaves

N. SALEM

K. MSAADA

M. HAMMAMI

S. SELMI

F. LIMAM

B. MARZOUK

 

Laboratory of Bioactive Substances, Biotechnology Center in Borj-Cedria Technopol, Hammam-Lif, Tunisia

 

Abstract - In order to recovery and valorize vegetable resources in Tunisia, this work was carried out to evaluate the composition of leaves essential oil at two different Tunisian regions (Beja and Tunis) and during flower development of safflower. A total of 20 compounds were identified representing 97% of the total constituents of essential oil leaves. Two main chemotypes were identified as methyl eugenol and caryophyllene oxide and characterized this composition of essential oil. The maximums of the two volatile compounds were detected at fructification stage with 22,45% for caryophyllene oxide, followed by methyl eugenol with 18,51% in the region of Beja. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes were the predominant class of leaves essential oil during flowering stages with percentages ranging from 20,13 to 24,3% (Beja) and from 19,19 to 22,45% (Tunis).

 

Keywords: safflower / fructification / chemotypes / essential oil.

 

Etude de l’incidence des boiteries et de leurs impacts sur la production laitière des vaches laitières dans le subhumide tunisien

R. Bouraoui1*

B. Jemmali1

N. M’hamdi2

C. Ben Mehrez1

B. Rekik1

 

1 Laboratoire d'Amélioration et de Développement Intégré de la Productivité Animale et des Ressources Alimentaires, Ecole Supérieure d'Agriculture de Mateur, Université de Carthage,

Tunisie

Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, 1082 Tunis

 

Abstract - This study focused on the incidence of lameness and its impact on the performance of dairy cows. The study was conducted in the Chergui farm in the region of Mateur. There were 230 Holstein cows with mean age of 4.85 (± 1.73) years. Locomotion was evaluated over all cows every 15 days from february to april using the scoring grid of locomotion that assigns scores ranging from score 1 to score 5. Assessment of the state of cleanliness of the barn was performed by two grids with scores from 0 to 3. Furthermore, for each cow, milk yield was recorded and analyzed. Results showed that the incidence of lameness in the farm is around 38.71%, and the most frequent podal affections are located at the hind legs (57.3%). Diet and condition of the barn are identified as risk factors for podal disorders. Milk production is affected by lameness. Indeed, 95.63% of the variation in milk yield is caused by the locomotor score. The increase of one unit of the locomotor score resulted in a decrease of 2.14 kg milk / cow / day. In this work, there was a significant loss of 9.3 kg of milk / cow / day and an increase in somatic cells with the locomotor score. The control of the management of herd, animal comfort and food is essential to limit the effects of podal diseases.

 

Keywords: Dairy cow / lameness / food / barn / milk production.

 

Résumé - Cette étude ayant porté sur l’incidence des boiteries et de leurs impacts sur les performances de production laitière s'est déroulée dans la ferme Chergui de la région de Mateur, comportant 230 vaches de race Holstein d’âge moyen de 4,85 (± 1,73) ans. Une évaluation de locomotion se faisait sur toutes les vaches chaque 15 jours sur une période allant de février à avril en utilisant la grille de notation de la locomotion qui attribue des notes allant de score 1 à score 5. L’évaluation de l’état de propreté du bâtiment a été réalisée par deux grilles de notation de 0 à 3. De plus, pour chacune des vaches, les données de production laitière ont été collectées et analysées. Les résultats ont montré que la fréquence de boiteries au sein de la ferme est de l’ordre de 38,71%, et les affections podales les plus fréquentes se situent au niveau des pattes postérieures (57,3 %). L’alimentation et l’état du bâtiment sont identifiés comme des facteurs de risque des affections podales. La production laitière est influencée par le problème de boiterie. En effet, 95,63% de la variation de la production laitière s’explique par le score locomoteur. L’augmentation d’une unité de score induit une diminution de 2,14 Kg du lait/vache/jour. Dans ce travail, on a enregistré une perte significative de la quantité du lait de 9,3 Kg /vache/jour et une augmentation du nombre de cellules somatiques avec le score locomoteur. La maitrise de la conduite d’élevage, du confort des animaux et de l’alimentation s’avère indispensable pour limiter les effets des maladies podales.

 

Mots clés: Vache laitière / boiterie / alimentation / bâtiment / Production laitière.

Effect of thiourea on potato contents of carotenoids, polyphenols ascorbic acid and nitrates

F. Mani 1 *

A. Mani 2

T. Bettaieb 3

C. Hannachi 1

 

1 High Agronomic InstituteChott- Mariem. Tunisia.

2 Laboratory of metabolic biophysics and applied pharmacology, Faculty of Medecine , Sousse, Tunisia

3 National AgronomicInstituteof Tunisia.

 

Abstract - Thiourea (250, 500, 750 and 1000 mM) was tested as seed- potato soaking before planting. The results of the field experiment showed that seed soaking with thiourea (500 mM) tended to improve carotenoids content (5,3 mg/kg over control). At 250 and 1000 mM, thiourea increases also significantly polyphenols (433 and 426 mg/kg respectively). Besides, regardless of the level of applied thiourea, the content of ascorbic acid has improved (13,9-18,3 mg/kg, over control = 11,4 mg/kg). It was further noted that application of thiourea at high levels (750 and 1000 mM) decreases significantly nitrates tubers content (191 and 183 mg/kg respectively), while at low levels (250 mM) nitrates content was increasing (252 mg/kg) over control (241 mg/kg).

 

Key words : Potato / thiourea / ascorbic acid / nitrates / carotenoids.

 

Chemical composition, in vitro nitrogen-digestibility and gas production of sweet and bitter fenugreek seed genotypes

H. Abdouli 1*

H. Missaoui 1

S. Jellali 1

L. Tayachi 1

S.K. Basu 2

 

1Laboratory of Improvement & Integrated Development of Animal Productivity & Food Resources, Higher School of Agriculture of Mateur, University of Carthage, Tunisia

2 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, AB Canada T1K 3M4

 

Abstract - Fenugreek, Trigonella foenum graecum, has been used for many purposes even though its bitter taste limits its acceptability. The objective of this study was to compare some nutritional aspects of a recently developed sweet genotype to the commonly and widely known bitter genotype. The two genotypes had almost identical proximate composition: crude proteins = 25.6 vs 25.7, ether extract = 4.8 vs 4.2 and total carbohydrate = 66.6 vs 66.7% dry matter for, the bitter and sweet genotypes, respectively. Their In vitro nitrogen digestibility coefficients were high (around 87%), not different (P>0.05) and not affected (P>0.05) by PEG addition. In vitro gas production parameters were not different (P>0.05) between the two genotypes yet sweet genotype tended to produce more gas (31 vs 27.5 ml/200 mg dry matter) with a faster and greater fermentation rate (3.87 vs 3.52 ml/h). calculated metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy for lactation (NEL) values based on in vitro gas production and chemical composition were slightly but significantly (P<0.0001) higher for the sweet fenugreek seed genotype: 6.21 vs 5.67 MJ ME/kg dry matter and 3.39 vs 2.99 MJ NEL/kg dry matter. It was concluded that both fenugreek seed genotypes can be used as valuable source of proteins feedstuffs in ruminant’s nutrition. In vivo comparison may be useful in further evaluation of the two genotypes.

 

Key words: Fenugreek seeds / chemical composition / digestibility / gas production

 

Copyright

This article is published under license to Journal of New Sciences. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

CC BY 4.0