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Signification géo-environnementale des caractères physico-chimiques des eaux du bassin de l'oued Maarouf (Tunisie centrale)

K. Lahmar1*

J.P. Larue2

 

1Université de Monastir, Tunisie

2Université Paris Est, Créteil, France

 

Abstract - The chemical analysis of water of the catchment area of the Maarouf wadi shows a strong variability in the spatial distribution of the chemical elements. To explain it, it is necessary to take account of the natural factors but also to wonder about the role of the occupation of the grounds and the alteration work which touched almost the totality of the catchment area. The agriculture of the area knew fast changes and the strong use of the pesticides and artificial fertilisers is responsible for the strong concentration in chemical elements of the samples of water on which one made the tests. The concentrations of water of the dam Nebhana in various chemical elements result mainly from the chemical dissolution of the elements forwarded by the Maarouf wadi. Dissolution is supported by: a) the lithological structure which composes the area catchment of the Maarouf wadi and sandy texture allowing a strong infiltration, the mixing and the transfer of these chemical components; b) the bioclimatic conditions of which a tendency towards the aridity; c) alteration work supporting a fluid transfer of the chemical elements.

 

Keywords: Central Tunisia, sedimentation, soil and water conservation, SIG, hydro-chemical analysis.

 

Résumé - L'analyse chimique des eaux du bassin versant de l'oued Maarouf montre une forte variabilité dans la distribution spatiale des éléments chimiques. Pour l'expliquer, il faut tenir compte des facteurs naturels mais aussi s'interroger sur le rôle de l'occupation des sols et des travaux d'aménagement qui ont touché la presque totalité du bassin versant. L'agriculture a connu des mutations rapides et la forte utilisation des pesticides et des engrais chimiques est responsable de la forte concentration en éléments chimiques des échantillons des eaux sur lesquels on a fait les tests. La composition chimique des eaux du barrage de Nebhana résulte principalement des apports par l'oued Maarouf. La dissolution sur le bassin versant est commandée par : a) la lithologie (roches sédimentaires variées) et par la texture souvent sableuse des sols, qui favorise l'infiltration ; b) les conditions bioclimatiques, marquées par une tendance vers l'aridité ; c) les travaux d'aménagement favorisant un transfert fluide des éléments chimiques.

 

Mots clés: Tunisie centrale, sédimentation, conservation des eaux et sol, SIG, analyse hydro-chimique.

 

Influence du fenugrec (Trigonella fænum græcum L.) sur la production laitière des lapines et la croissance des lapereaux avant sevrage

I. REKIK 1

R. BERGAOUI 1

 

1 Département de Production Animale: Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie INAT

 

Abstract - The influence of adding the fenugreek (Trigonella fænum græcum L.) on the lactation curve was studied in the rabbits does (New-Zealand X Californian X local breed). Thirty does were randomly divided into three groups (n =10) considering live weight and parity. Two types of diets were used: A control group was fed a normal diet (C), while the treated groups (E1 and E2) received the diet(C) supplemented with 2% of fenugreek (E). The does of group E1 consume the E diet and those of E2 consume only the diet E during two weeks before weaning otherwise does eat diet (C). The kits were nursed until weaning at 35 days of age. Milk yield was measured daily until day 35 with separation of kits and weighing the does immediately before and after controlled sucking. Findings of induction of 2% fenugreek in diet establish that the mortality at the birth is lower than the control groups. We observed especially in group E1 that the weight of the rabbits before weaning is 58,14g±9,86; and the quantity of milk produced is significantly important(p<0.05) than the other groups with a peak of 237,17g in the case of the group E1 and 163,95g in the control group.

 

Keywords: fenugreek - lactation curve - rabbits.

 

Résumé - Pour tester l’effet du fenugrec (Trigonella fænum græcum L) sur la lactation et les performances zootechnique de la lapine, on a utilisé deux types d’aliments: un aliment de contrôle (C) et un aliment expérimental comportant 2% de graines de fenugrec (E). Ainsi 30 lapines ont été divisées en trois lots homogènes (C, E1 et E2): les femelles du lot E1 consomment uniquement l’aliment E tout au long de l'expérience et celles du lot E2 consomment l’aliment E durant deux semaines avant sevrage sinon elles consomment l’aliment (C). La reproduction est réalisée selon le rythme semi-intensif avec un intervalle entre saillies de 42 jours. Les resultats concernant la production laitière des lapines, montrent une quantité de lait plus importante au niveau du lot E1 avec un pic de 237,17g. Cette production est significativement plus élevée comparativement aux deux autres groupes ( le lot C = 163,95g et le lot E2 = 158,21g ). De plus il y a une forte corrélation entre la quantité de lait produite et la quantité de lait consommée par les lapereaux. Les résultats ont montré aussi qu’au niveau du lot E1: la mortalité à la naissance est plus faible que les autres lots, la mortalité des lapereaux avant sevrage est la plus faible (2,1%) et le poids des lapereaux au sevrage le plus élevé (549,95g±36,12) ; alors que celui enregistré dans le cas du lot C est de 444,34g±26,02 et celui du lot E2 est de : 497,15g± 22,17.

 

Mots clés: fenugrec - production laitière - lapines reproductrices.

 

Chemical composition and anti-corrosive activity of Carum carvi seed essential oil

A.Garaya1

W.Dhifi1

M.Nehiri2

A.Echchelh2

M.Ebntouhami3

A.Chaouch2

W.Mnif4,5,¥,*

R. Ben Chaouacha-Chekir1, ¥

 

1UR11ES44, Ecophysiologie et Procédés agroalimentaires, Institut Supérieur de Biotechnologie de Sidi Thabet, Biotechpole de Sidi Thabet Tunis, Université de La Manouba, 2020-Tunisia

2Laboratoire de Biotechnologie, Environnement et Qualité, Faculté des Sciences Ibn Tofail, Kenitra, PO box 242, 1400-Maroc

3Laboratoire d’Electrochimie, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ibn Tofail, Kenitra, PO box 242, 1400-Maroc

4Univ. Manouba, ISBST, BVBGR-LR11ES31, Biotechpole Sidi Thabet, 2020, Ariana, Tunisia

5Faculty of Sciences and Arts in Balgarn PO BOX 60 Balgarn- Sabt Al Alaya 61985, Bisha University, Saudi Arabia.

¥ Wissem Mnif and Rafika Ben Chaouacha-Chekir should be considered as last co-authors.

 

Abstract - Essential oil (EO) of the seeds of caraway (Carum carvi L.) was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and coupled gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The inhibition of the corrosion of mild steel in sulfuric acid solution by Carum carvi EO has been studied and four concentrations were tested (25, 50, 100 and 150 ppm).The effect of the immersion time on the corrosion behaviour of mild steel in 0.5M H2SO4 was also studied. Six compounds were identified. R-carvone (79.72 %) and D-limonene (19.71%) were the most abundant components. The main results showed that inhibition efficiency Ew (%) values of Carum carvi EO increase with the increase of the concentration reaching a maximum value of 86% at a concentration of 50 ppm. Furthermore, the inhibition efficiency of caraway seed EO was stable (86%) until 1hour. After 1h, it starts to decrease (82% at 2 h). Thus the percentage of inhibition decreased from 86% to 77% after 12 hours indicating that our EO has a good and strong inhibition persists in H2SO4 acid medium. Carum carvi seed EO could serve as an effective inhibitor of the corrosion of mild steel in sulfuric acid media.

 

Keywords: Carum carvi L, essential oil, R-carvone, D-limonene, corrosion

 

Copyright

This article is published under license to Journal of New Sciences. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

CC BY 4.0