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Prospective analysis of low flows in a climate change context in West Africa: case of the N’zo-Sassandra watershed (West of Côte d’Ivoire)

Analyse prospective des débits d’étiage dans un contexte de changements climatiques en Afrique de l’Ouest : cas du bassin versant du N’zo-Sassandra, (Ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire)


KOUASSI Amani Michel1

GNANGOUIN Asaph Yahot Joel2

KOUAME Kassi Alexis3

YAO Charles Armel4


Guessan Emilienne4


Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët-Boigny (INP-HB) ; Département de Formation et de Recherche (DFR) des Sciences de la Terre et des Ressources Minières (STeRMi) ; Laboratoire du Génie Civil, des Géosciences et des Sciences Géographiques ; BP 1093 Yamoussoukro, Tél. (+225) 27 30 64 67 15 (Côte d’Ivoire) ;


Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët-Boigny (INP-HB), École Doctorale Polytechnique (EDP); de l’Unité Mixte de Recherche et d’Innovation (UMRI), en genie civil, géosciences et sciences géographiques, B.P. 1093 Yamoussoukro, Tél. (+225) 27 30 64 04 06 (Côte d’Ivoire) ;


3 Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Cocody-Abidjan, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et des Ressources Minières (STRM), Laboratoire des Sciences du Sol, de l’Eau et des Géomatériaux (LSSEG), 22 B.P. 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire


4 Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët-Boigny (INP-HB), École Supérieure des Mines et de Géologie (ESMG); en Exploitation et Traitement des Eaux (ETE), B.P. 1093 Yamoussoukro (Côte d’Ivoire), Tél. (+225) 27 30 64 6715.


  DOI: https://doi.org/10.55416/sunb.jns01.2302.09104


Abstract The objective of this study is to analyze the prospective of the low water flows of the N'zo-Sassandra River located in the West of Ivory Coast. The hydroclimatic data used (rainfall, ETP, flow) extend on the one hand over the historical period (1961-2017) and on the other hand over the future period 2071-2100 (CORDEX data). The methodological approach adopted is based on the analysis of past low flows, the climate prospective analysis and the hydrological prospective analysis. The hydrological impact variable used is the annual minimum monthly mean flow (MAMF). Thus, a pessimistic climate forecast scenario was used (RCP 8.5.). This climate scenario was then fed into a rainfall-runoff hydrological model (GR2M model) calibrated to the 1961-1990 reference period and validated over the 1991-2017 period. In response to the climate forcing, future monthly low-flow rates (MAMF) were simulated. An increase in the number of flows in the class ]0-4] m3/s was observed, reflecting low flows in the 2071–2100-time frame. The best statistical law retained following the frequency analysis of the low-water flows is the lognormal law. By 2071-2100, a decrease in rainfall (-19.2%) and an increase in temperature (+3.9°C) are predicted in the N'zo-Sassandra watershed. Frequent low-water flows estimated from the lognormal law have shown a bias of -50.38%, which translates into a decrease of half of the frequent low-water flows by the end of the 21st century compared to the current period. This decrease in flows will have consequences on the availability of water resources for irrigation, fishing, breeding, drinking water supply, navigation, etc. This is why we propose as alternative resources for agricultural needs, groundwater which is less impacted by global changes.

Key words: Climate change, Hydrological forecasting, Low flows, N’zo-Sassandra, Ivory Coast.

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Pistacia lentiscus extracts as a valuable source of antioxidant compounds

Les extraits de Pistacia lentiscus comme source de molécules antioxydantes


S. RGUEZ1, 2






Laboratory of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants, Center of Biotechnology of Borj Cedria, BP 901, Hammam-Lif 2050, Tunisia.

2 Faculty of Sciences, University of Tunis El Manar, Campus Universitaire Farhat Hached B.P. n° 94 - Rommana 1068 Tunis, Tunisie.


  DOI: https://doi.org/10.55416/sunb.jns01.2302.09103


Abstract - Medicinal plants produced many secondary metabolites which constituted an important source of bioactive molecules. This study aims to determine organic extracts (EOs) antioxidant activity extracted from terminal branches of Pistacia lentiscus (P. lentiscus) collected at three different phenological stages (vegetative, flowering and fructification). For this, different extracts were prepared by maceration in various solvents with increasing polarity notably diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, methanol and water. Antioxidant activity was reported by DPPH free radical scavenging, iron reducing capacity and total antioxidant capacity tests. Results showed that phenological stages and solvent polarities affected significantly P. lentiscus antioxidant activity. Furthermore, aqueous and methanolic extracts from vegetative stage present the highest total polyphenols, total flavonoids and condensed tannins contents. Methanolic extract from vegetative stage exhibited the greatest antioxidant activity and even exceeded that of synthetic antioxidants BHT and ascorbic acid. In this study, P. lentiscus represents an important source of antioxidant molecules. As a result, extracts of this plant could replace synthetic antioxidants in e food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields.

Key words: Pistacia lentiscus; organic extracts; solvent polarities; phenological stages; antioxidant activity.

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Ethnopharmacological survey, phytochemical screening and study of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Melissa officinalis L. from northwestern Tunisia

Enquête ethnopharmacologique, criblage phytochimique et étude des activités antioxydante et antibactérienne de Melissa officinalis L. du Nord-Ouest Tunisien


Saber Jedidi,1,2

Houcine Selmi1

Raoua Slim1

Hichem Sebai2

Foued Aloui1


1Laboratoire des Ressources Sylvo-Pastorales, Université de Jendouba, Institut Sylvo-Pastoral de Tabarka, Tunisie.

2Unité de Physiologie Fonctionnelle et Valorisation des Bio-Ressources, Université de Jendouba, Institut Supérieur de Biotechnologie de Béja, Tunisie.


 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55416/sunb.jns01.2302.09102


Abstract Currently, herbal medicine has proven its effectiveness and undeniable benefits in our daily lives, confirming that plants can prevent and treat. In this context, we are interested in carrying out an ethno-pharmacological survey on the traditional use of Melissa officinalis in the Tabarka region as well as phytochemical screening and the study of antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The survey conducted in the Tabarka region revealed that lemon balm was used in traditional medicine to treat a whole range of pathologies. Indeed, we have shown that Melissa officinalis is traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases and particularly those of the digestive system pathologies and nervous disorders. The survey also revealed three methods of preparation: decoction, infusion and maceration. The method of administration is highly dependent on the pathology to be treated. In the present work, the phytochemical screening showed that Melissa officinalis leaves aqueous extract (MOAE) presents an important scavenging action against the DPPH radical. Importantly, MOAE presented a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and Gram +ve were more sensitive than Gram-ve bacteria. Thus, the bioactive components of lemon balm can be used as antioxidant and antibacterial substances.

Key words: Ethnopharmacological survey, chemical composition, aqueous extract, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

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Evaluation of the productive and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows reared in a warm Tunisian (Mediterranean) climate


Evaluation des performances productives et reproductives de la vache laitière de race Holstein élevée en climat Tunisien (méditerranéen) chaud.









1 Environmental Biomonitoring Laboratory (LR01/ ES14); Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte - University of Carthage Tunisia.

2 Higher School of Agriculture of Kef, University of Jendouba, Tunisia.

Department of Animal Biotechnology, Higher Institute of Biotechnology of Beja, University of Jendouba, Tunisia.

4 Higher School of Agriculture of Mateur, University of Carthage, Tunisia


  DOI: https://doi.org/10.55416/sunb.jns01.2302.09101



Abstract This work consists in studying the productive and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows (n=77) reared in an intensive production system in a Mediterranean climate, as well as the factors of their variations. Meteorological data collected between 2017 and 2020 for the region of Beja, North-West of Tunisia, revealed that the average monthly values ​​of ambient temperature (Ta), relative humidity (HR) and temperature-humidity index (THI), are respectively 19.97 ±1.24°C, 73.69±3.42%, and 66±1.74. During the 3 years of study, the cows were exposed to a hot summer season which began in Jun (THI= 76) and persisted until September (THI =77). On average, milk production at 305 days of lactation, milk fat (MG) and protein (MP) content, as well as somatic cell count (SCC) were respectively 5782 ± 358 Kg, 3.36 ± 1.65%, 3.12 ± 0.42% and 489 ± 305 x 103 cells/ml. Several factors significantly (P < 0.05) affect milk production. Indeed, the highest milk production is observed during the year 2020. When the THI increases, the drop of milk production is greater (-0.18kg/d, per THI point). Multiparous cows produce more milk than primiparous cows, with higher yields at peak lactation (30.0 kg/d) and a lower persistence coefficient (95.6%). Cows calved in winter produced more milk (+22%; P<0.05) than cows calved in summer. The interval between calving to the first insemination (IV-IA1), calving to fertilizing insemination (IV-IAF) and calving interval (IVV) were 87.4 ± 28.2 days, 134 ± 71 days and 425 ±75 days respectively. The success rate in 1st insemination (TRIA1) and three or more insemination, as well as number of inseminations per conception were respectively 29.1±18.5%, 9.7±5.5% and 2.11±1.6. In conclusion, control of breeding conduct, in particular the heat detection technique, is essential to improve the productivity of the Holstein cow raised in an intensive production system in a hot Tunisian climate.

Key wordsCattle breeding, milk production, heat stress, season, calving month

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This article is published under license to Journal of New Sciences. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

CC BY 4.0