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Variation annuelle des paramètres éco-physiologiques de Argania spinosa L. Skeels var. mutica et var. apiculata dans le semi-aride tunisien

S. El Adib ¹*

S. slim 2

F. Ben Jeddi ¹


1 Université de Carthage. Laboratoire des Sciences Horticoles, INA Tunisie,

2 Université de Carthage. Laboratoire des Sciences Horticoles, ESA Mateur.


Abstract - The Argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels) contains two varieties, mutica (spineless) and apiculata (thorny). The seasonal effect on the chlorophylls concentrations, water relative contents (WRC), and leaf areas (LA) of argan trees in INAT arboretum were analyzed.  During winter and spring seasons, a significant increase of the rates of leaf chlorophylls (a/b) was particularly found at A. apiculata. In january, the chlorophyll a concentrations were 2084.61 and 1605.05 µg/g MF (fresh material) respectively to apiculata and mutica. A. apiculata leaf area was reduced to 23.5 and 14.6 cm²/cm in october and january; compared to A. mutica which maintained a higher and relatively the same leaf area about to 35cm²/cm. In the same environment, leaves water relative content of A. apiculata reach a high level between 51.4 and 68.32% in february and march. Contrary to A. mutica, WRC has varied between 29.3 and 19.07%. During the dry season, A. apiculata is characterized by a photosynthetic activity more important than A. mutica with respectively 869.66 and 655.51µg/g MF of chlorophyll a.


Key words: Argania spinosa / water relative content / Chlorophylls / leaf area


Résumé - L’Arganier (Argania spinosa L. Skeels) comporte deux variétés, mutica (inerme) et apiculata (épineuse). L’effet saisonnier le long d’un cycle phénologique annuel sur la variation des concentrations en chlorophylles, teneurs relatives en eau, et surfaces foliaires de deux variétés d’arganier implantés dans l’arboretum de l’INA Tunisie a été analysé. Durant les saisons hivernale et printanière, une augmentation significative des taux de chlorophylles (a et b) dans les feuilles a été signalée particulièrement chez A. apiculata. Les concentrations en chlorophylle a du mois de janvier ont été de 2084,61 et 1605,05 µg/g MF (matière fraîche) respectivement chez A. apiculata et A. mutica. À la même période, la surface foliaire de A. apiculata a été réduite à 23,5 et 14,6 cm²/cm de rameau aux mois d’octobre et janvier. Contrairement à A. mutica qui a préservée une surface foliaire relativement stable et plus élevée de l’ordre de 35cm²/cm. Dans le même cadre spatio-temporel, la teneur relative en eau des feuilles de A. apiculata a marqué des niveaux élevés de 51,4 et 68,32 % en février et mars. Alors qu’elle a enregistré une chute significative chez A. mutica avec 29,3 et 19,07 %. Pendant la saison sèche, A. apiculata se caractérise par une activité photosynthétique plus importante que A. mutica avec respectivement 869,66 et 655,51 µg/g MF de chlorophylle a.


Mots clés : Argania spinosa / Teneur en eau relative / Chlorophylles / surface foliaire


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Effects of using local feed resources on milk performances of the Sicilo-Sarde ewes farmed in Northern Tunisia





1Laboratory of Improvement and Integrated Development of Animal Productivity and Food Resources, Higher School of Agriculture of Mateur, University of Carthage, Tunisia

2Regional Center of the Agricultural Researches of Beja, 9000 Beja, Tunisia.


Abstract - This study aim to evaluate the effect of using local feed resources (Faba bean, Barley, White sorghum) as an alternative to imported resources ( Soya bean, Corn) in the concentrates formulation for dairy sheep on the milk performances of sicilo-sarde dairy ewes during the suckling period (10 weeks). In the first experiment thirty ewes were divided into two homogenous groups for live weight (51.3 kg ± 5.7 vs 52 kg ± 5.4), the rank of lactation (2.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.6 ± 0.8) and litter size (1.46 ± 0.9vs. 1.5 ± 0.5). Animals were lodged in similar boxes and received 1.5 kg/ewe/day of oat hay. Ration was complemented by 500 g of one of two concentrates. (i) The first concentrate contained 82.5 % barley, 13.5% soybean meal and 4% vitamin and mineral mixture (VMC) for the control group (CG) and (ii) a second concentrate that included 71.5 % barley, 17.5% Faba bean meal,7% Soybean meal and 4 % VMC for the experimental group (EG). In the second experiment a total of 20 ewes were divided into two homogenous groups for live weight (33.83 ± 5.63 vs33.95 ± 5.58 kg), the rank of lactation (4.3 ± 1.25 vs.4.6 ± 0.96) and litter size (1.1 ± 0.31vs 1.15 ± 0.4). Animals were lodged in similar boxes and received 1.5 kg DM /ewe/day of oat hay. Ration was complemented by one of two concentrates : (i) 500g/ewe/day of a concentrate that incuded 10 % barley, 43.3 % corn,25 % Wheat bran, 17,7 % soybean meal, 4% and mineral and vitamin mixture for the control group (CG) and (ii) a second concentrate that included 66% white sorghum, 30% Faba bean meal and 4% vitamin mixture for the experimental group (EG). Ewes remained on the experiment until 10 weeks post-partum. In each expériment results showed that daily milk yield was higher (p< 0.05) in ewes fed the EG concentrate than in those fed the CG supplement (1115 ± 383.7 ml vs 987 ± 281.7 ml) and (545 ± 183 ml vs 468 ± 148 ml ) in the first and the second experiment, respectively. Likewise, milk fat content was higher (p< 0.05) for the EG ewe group (5.67 ± 0.98 % vs 5.40 ± 1.04 %) and (7.58 ± 0.6 % vs 7.21 ± 0.4 %) in the first an second experiment, respectively. The protein content did not differ between the two groups (EG:5.59 ± 0.19 % and 6.04±0.57 % , CG: 5.58± 0.21% and 5.86 ± 0.54%). On the other hand, the amount of lactose was lower (p < 0.05) in the CG groups (3.80 ± 0.09 and 3.48 ± 0.21) than that in the EG groups ( 3.86 ± 0.08 and 3.61± 0.13). It is possible to replace Soybean and corn by Fababean and White sorghum in the Sicilo- Sarde ration without compromising either quality and milk production.


Key words : Barley / Ewes / Faba bean / dairy sheep / Sicilo-Sarde / Soybean / Milk yield / Milk quality / Milk performances / Suckling.


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Effect of salt stress on the flag leaf area and yield components in twenty five durum wheat genotypes (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum)

Z. Chamekh 1*

S. Ayed 2

A. Sahli 1

S. Ayadi 1

Z. Hammemi 1

S. Jallouli 1

Y. Trifa 1

H. Amara 1


1 Genetic and Plant Breeding Laboratory, Department of Agronomy and Biotechnology, National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia, 43, Avenue Charles Nicole, 1082 Tunis, Tunisia.

2 Regional Research Development Office of Agriculture in Semi Arid North West of Kef, Tunisia.


Abstract - Salt stress is considered to be a major limiting factor for plant growth and crop productivity. In this study, effect of salinity on leaf area, ion accumulation (Na+, K+) and component yield (grain number per spike, 1000 grain weight, number of spikes per m² and grain yield) were investigated in twenty five genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) cultivated in three different regions in Tunisia center (Echbika, Barrouta and Sidi Bouzide). These sites differ by their salinity degree in the irrigation water respectively 2.1 (control), 4.3 and 5.2 g/l. As a result salt stress the flag leaf area decreased significantly for the most of genotypes with the increase of stress treatments except “Mahmoudi, Om Rabia, N, Maali, Khiar and Jneh Khotifa”. Na+ concentrations increased with increase in salinity but K+ concentration was lower as salinity levels increased for all cultivars expect “Mahmoudi” and “Hamira” cultivars. Thus, less Na+ accumulation and more K+ content in these genotypes at the highest salt level, confirm salt tolerance of these cultivars. Grain number per spike, 1000 grain weight, number of spikes per m² and grain yield showed a reduction with increase in root zone Stalinization but the effect was varied in different durum wheat genotypes. It was concluded that the conservation of the leaf area and a low concentration of Na+ in the flag leaf will improve the salt tolerance of wheat genotypes in breeding programs.


Key words: durum wheat / salinity / tolerance / genotype / site.


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This article is published under license to Journal of New Sciences. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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