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Antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of bark and leave extracts from Tunisian native tree: Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. subsp. Angustifolia







University of Carthage. The National Research Institute of Rural Engineering, Water and Forestry. INRGREF. Laboratory of Management and Valorization of Forest Resources. BP 10 Ariana 2080. Tunisia.

University of Jendouba. Higher Institute of Biotechnology of Beja, ISBB. BP 382-Beja 9000. Tunisia.

University of Tunis El Manar. Unité de Physiologie et Biochimie de la Réponse des Plantes aux Contraintes Abiotiques, Département des Sciences Biologiques, FST, Campus Universitaire, 2092 Tunis, Tunisia.



Abstract – The secondary metabolite composition and antioxidant activities of barks and leaves of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. subsp. angustifolia (Oleaceae), Tunisian native tree, from two provenances (Béja and Nefza) were investigated using two solvents extracts (ethanol and distilled water). The highest amounts of polyphenols (24,84 ± 0,57 mg GAE/g DW), flavonoids (2,71 ± 0,15 mg CE/g DW), total tannins (138,07 ± 5,77 mg CE/g DW) and condensed tannins (68,43 ± 5,76 mg CE/g DW) were shown for Béja bark ethanolic extracts. The efficiency of the solvents used to extract phenols from the two organs varied considerably. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by scavenging the radicals 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). The level of antioxidant activity estimated by DPPH test systems was high for Nefza bark (IC50 = 7,12 ± 0,07 µg/ml) and Nefza ethanolic extracts leaves (IC50 = 8,81 ± 0,20 µg/ml). A significant correlation between radical-scavenging capacities of extracts with total phenolic compound was observed. This study was the first report of the antioxidant activity of extracts from leave and bark extracts of F. angustifolia in Tunisia. These promising results open the way for further investigations to purify and identify active molecules.

Keywords: Fraxinus angustifolia; Oleaceae; leave and bark extracts; bioactive compounds; DPPH method

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Advances in sanitation methods for fruit tree species through in vitro technologies: Possibilities and limits







Laboratory of Plant Protection, National Agronomic Research Institute of Tunisia (INRAT), University of Carthage, Rue Hédi Karray 1004 El-Menzah, Tunisia



Abstract – Viruses are considered of great economic importance, regarding their responsability for numerous epidemics in many crops over the world where they cause decrease in both yield and quality.
In addition to the development of sensitive techniques for detection, identification and characterization of viruses, substantial progress has also been releazed in biotechnological methods for their efficiency in plant sanitation. This review of literature highlighted the advances on biotechnological methods devoted to the production of healthy plants in some virus-infected fruit species. These methods are essentially based on in vitro tissue culture like meristem culture, shoot-tip grafting and somatic embryogenesis. In order to improve the efficiency of those methods, additional tools such as thermotherapy, chemotherapy, electroptherapy and cryotherapy have been developed in combination with previously mentioned tissue culture techniques. Possibilities and limits of each sanitation method were discussed.

Keywords: Bibliographic research, meristem culture, somatic embryogenesis, viruseradication

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Production and profitability of the maize culture in the oases of Kanem in Tchad

Production et rentabilité de la culture de maïs dans les oasis du Kanem au Tchad







1 *Agroeconomiste, Higher Teacher training school of Bongor, Department of Life sciences and ground, Bongor-Chad

Agroeconomiste, University Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Agronomic Faculty of Science, Department of Economy and Socio Anthropology and Communication for the Rural Development, Cotonou, Benin

Protection of the plants, Agronomic Faculty of Science (FSA/UAC), Cotonou, Benin



Abstract – The farms oasiennes of Kanem in Chad are characterized by a function of production per system. The purpose of this article is to determine the gross margin of the producers and also to identify the determinants of the financial profitability of the maize producers. The data collected near 251 maize.
Producers reveal that the positive and significant gross margin being for all the oases. They show that the production of corn makes it possible to make safe the refunding of the intrants producers. The parametric approach of stochastic function border was used. A stochastic function of Cobb-Douglass type was estimated. The result of the model was overall significant (p< 0, 01).The multiple coefficient of determination adjusted R² was 0,6477, which means that 64,77 % of the total variation of the gross margin are explained by the variables included in the model. The analysis of the collected data show that the following elements influence on the gross margin of the producers in the zone of research. It is about the age of the owner, the funded capital, membership of an association, the ratio sold quantity/collected quantity and the total surface exploited (in ha) of surveyed and the access to the credit.In addition, these data reveal that, the origin, the experiment, the number of provided education for children, the access to popularization, the use of fertilizers, the membership of an association, the ethnic origin are not significant in the determination of the margin.

Keywords: Financial profitability; maize producers; determinants of profitability, Kanem


Résumé - Les exploitations agricoles oasiennes du Kanem au Tchad sont caractérisées par une fonction de production par système. Cet article a pour but de déterminer la marge brute des producteurs et aussi d’identifier les déterminants de la rentabilité financière des producteurs de maïs. Les données collectées auprès de 251 producteurs de maïs révèlent que la marge brute étant positive et importante pour toutes les oasis. Elles montrent que la production de maïs permet de sécuriser le remboursement des intrants des producteurs. L’approche paramétrique de fonction frontière stochastique a été utilisée. Une fonction stochastique de type Cobb-Douglass a été estimée. Le résultat du modèle a été globalement significatif (p< 0,01). Le coefficient de détermination multiple ajusté R² a été de 0,6477, ce qui signifie que 64,77 % de la variation totale de la marge brute est expliquée par les variables incluses dans le modèle. L’analyse des données collectées montrent que les éléments suivants influencent sur la marge brute des producteurs dans la zone de recherche. Il s’agit de l’âge de l’exploitant, le capital investi, appartenance à une association, le ratio quantité vendue/quantité récoltée et la superficie totale exploitée (en Ha) de l’enquêté et l’accès au crédit. Par ailleurs, ces données révèlent que, l’origine, l’expérience, le nombre d’enfants scolarisés, l’accès à la vulgarisation, l’utilisation des fertilisants, l’appartenance à une association, l’origine ethnique ne sont pas significatifs dans la détermination de la marge.

Mots clés : Rentabilité financière ; producteurs de maïs ; déterminants de la rentabilité, Kanem(Tchad).

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Importance of BYDV on barley and oat in Tunisia and evaluation of viral infection on their forage quality

Importance du BYDV sur orge et avoine en Tunisie et évaluation de l'infection virale sur leur qualité fourragère









Laboratory of Plant Protection, National Institute of Agriculture Research of Tunisia. University of Carthage, Street HediKarray, 1004 El Menzah, Tunisia

Laboratory of Field Crops, National Institute of Agriculture Research of Tunisia. University of Carthage, Street Hedi Karray, 1004 El Menzah, Tunisia

Seed Health Unit, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.0.Box 114/5055, Beirut, Lebanon

National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia.University of Carthage, 43, Street Charles Nicolle, 1080 Tunis,Tunisia



Abstract – Cereals are considered as strategic crops in Tunisia because of their economic and social relevance and the importance of the cultivated areas. Viral diseases and particularly barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) represent one of the major constraints that reduce the genetic potential of most cereal species and cultivars. In this context our study aims to assess the prevalence and the geographical distribution of BYDV and to evaluate the virus incidence on biomass and forage quality on oat and barley that provide important part of forage production for ruminants in Tunisia. In this regard, a field survey was conducted during 2015/2016 growing season in North-Eastern regions (Bizerte,CapBon, Mateur) and North-Western region (Kef, Fahs) and Central-Eastern region (Kairouan).For barley, Tissue blot immunoassays (TBIA) results showed that BYDV were most common in Fahs, Mateur and Bizerte with detectable incidence rate is nearly of 40% in randomly collected samples from these three locations. For oat, BYDV infection was more important in Mateur (35%), followed by Bizerte and Cap Bon regions who have a similar infection (23%).Among the different BYDVs identified, BYDV-PAV was the most common compare to CYDV-RPV with 18 % for barley and 57% for oat. Based on BYDV inoculation, significant biomass decreases were recorded for barley and reached 48% and 50% respectively for Manel and Rihane followed by the Meliane oat variety (42%). These results confirm the sensitivity of these varieties to the virus. The chemical composition of the different samples of barley and oat analyzed shows that only the lignin (ADL) levels show a significant difference between the two varieties into the two species. In fact, Rihane is more rich than Manel by 80%. The same trend was observed for Bizanta, which exceeds Meliane by 58%.

Keywords: BYDV, Barley, Oat, Viral incidence, forage quality


Résumé - Les céréales sont considérées comme des cultures stratégiques en Tunisie de par leur importance économique et les emblavures qu’elles occupent. Les maladies virales plus particulièrement le virus de la jaunisse nanisante de l'orge (BYDV), présentent une contrainte majeure limitant l’expression des potentialités génétiques de la plupart des espèces et variétés cultivées. La présente étude a pour objectifd' évaluer d'une part l'incidence du BYDV et sa répartition géographique en fonction des régions céréalières et d'autre part d'identifierl'effet du virus sur la biomasse et la qualité fourragère des deux espèces orge et avoine utilisées pour l'alimentation du cheptel. Des prospections ont été réalisées durant la campagne 2015/2016 dans les régions du Nord-est (Bizerte, CapBon, Mateur) et Nord-west (Kef, Fahs) ainsi qu'au Centre (Kairouan). Les tests sérologiques Tissue blot immunoassays (TBIA) révélent pour l'orgeune contamination importante du virus (40%) dans les régions de Mateur, Fahs et Bizerte. Pour l'avoine, l'incidence du BYDV était plus importante à Mateur (35%) suivie des régions de Bizerte et Cap bon avec un taux d'infection similaire (23%).Des analyses sérologiques plus spécifiques ont mis en évidence la prépondérance du virus BYDV-PAV par comparaison au CYDV-RPV avec des taux de 18% pour l'orge et 57% pour l'avoine. Sous l’effet d'une inoculation par le BYDV, des diminutions importantes de la bioamasse a été enregistrée pour l'orge et a atteint 48% et 50% respectivement pour Manel et Rihane suivi de la variété d'avoine Meliane (42%) stipulant une sensibilité de ces variétés au virus. La composition chimique des différents échantillons d’orge et d’avoine analysés montre que seules les teneurs en lignine (ADL) présentent une différence significative entre les deux variétés au sein des deux espèces. En effet Rihane est plus riche en ADL que Manel de 80%. Il en est de même pour Bizanta qui dépasse Meliane de 58%.


Mots clés : Allium, Polyphénols, GCMS, activité antioxydante, DPPH, infusion, décoction.

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Hormonal priming and salt treatments effects on germination percentage and antioxidant activities in O. majorana (Majoram) seedlings




S. M’RAH1,




Unit of Physiology and Biochemistry of the Response of Plants to Abiotic Constraints, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.


Abstract – The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of salt on the antioxidant activity, the total phenolic flavonoid and tannins contents and the possible protective effects of marjoram seedling on lipid peroxidation GPX and Catalase activity.
Thus, antioxidant activity was evaluated by using different assays, total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by bleaching of the purple-colored solution of DPPH radical. Seeds of Marjoram (O. majorana L.) showed a difference of salt sensitivity with different NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 mM) for a period of 15 days. Germination percentage was improved at 50 mM, decreased at 100 mM and absence at 150 mM.
Many research studies have shown that seed priming is an efficient method for increasing plant growth and yield in saline condition. For this reason, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of priming with (1, 5, 10 mM) and non-primed seeds in presence and absence of salt, we conclude that proline decreased germination percentage. So, concentration of 75 mM NaCl, kept for the continuation of these experiences for determination of antioxidant capacity. The overall results showed that salinity could influence the performance of polyphenols and flavonoids by increasing the concentration of these metabolites in their tissues. An increase in phenolic contents, flavonoids, tannins, total antioxydant activity and DPPH were observed. Salt increased protein content, GPX and Catalase activity. There are advise to germinate marjoram seeds at NaCl 75 mM, because it richness in secondary metabolites and enzymatic antioxidant.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, marjoram, germination, phenolics, flavonoids

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This article is published under license to Journal of New Sciences. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

CC BY 4.0