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Analysis of the apple value chain at Sbiba region, Tunisia

L’analyse de la chaine de valeur du pommierdans la région de Sbiba, Tunisie







1Department of economics and management of agricylture and agrofood, National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia and National Agricultural Research Institute of Tunisia, Tunis, Tunisia

2Department of rural economics, High School of Agriculture of Mograne, Zaghouen, Tunisia

3Department of plant production sciences, High School of Agriculture of Mateur, Mateur, Tunisia

2High School of Agriculture of Mograne, Zaghouen Tunisia

Abstract – Sbiba region, reputed as the emblem of apples cultivation in Tunisia, has a potential of water, soil, climate and the know-how of the producers that grants apple farming. The deployment of this cultivation was an opportunity for socio-economic development in the region. However, we distinguished some constraints that could call into question the future of the sector. To do so, we conducted surveys and interviews with farmers, chain-operators and agricultural decision-makers at regional and local scale, in order to analyse the apple chain value, to define its strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities et finally to calculate the added value of each operator in the apple chain. Intensive apple cultivation -in this region- caused a strong pressure on water irrigation leading to the groundwater depletion and soil salinity on one hand, and on the other hand, soil and groundwater pollution through high use of fertilizers and treatment products. Besides the foremost constraints that have undermined the apple sector are: climate change, depletion of aquifers, aging of apple orchards, shortage and high cost of water, lack of processing units in the study area, seasonal and annual supply fluctuations triggering price variability, etc. Moreover, despite the position of the leading operator in the apple chain, producers benefit from the lowest added value. This is due to the poor organization of producers, in particular, those with small-scale orchards and poor material and financial means. This prevents them from selling their products at the right time and at more attractive prices.

Keywords: apple value chain, Sbiba region, added value, SWOT analysis, water, soil.

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Analysis of the dairy value chain in Central Tunisia: Challenges and opportunities for a better development

L’analyse de la chaîne de valeurs des produits laitiers au Centre de la Tunisie: Challenges et opportunités pour un meilleur développement





1,2,3,4 National Agronomic Research Institute of Tunisia (INRAT), Rue Hedi Karray, 2049 Tunis, Tunisia.


Abstract – Tunisian dairy value chain plays an important role in economic growth, enhancing food security, poverty reduction and rural development. The paper aims to diagnosis the dairy value chain in Central Tunisia (Sidi Bouzid governorate) in order to facilitate the development of stakeholder-driven strategies to improve the milk quality, added value, and milk cooling technologies.. Qualitative and quantitative interviews were addressed to 121 breeders, 30 milk collectors, 14 milk collecting centers and one milk plant. SWOT method was applied to determine the performance of the dairy value chain. Results show important opportunities related to the qualitative aspect and the value creation: introducing the dry ration which can improve the flock’s productivity, encouraging breeders to group together in cooperatives to benefit from the multiple governmental advantages, cooling milk on the farm as a first step to guarantee a better microbiological quality of milk at production level, organizing the milk collectors by applying the specific rules of quality, revising the national quality standards towards higher levels, etc. However, better coordination between the different stakeholders is necessary to carry out all the suggested interventions on the Tunisian dairy value chain.

Keywords: Value chain, dairy products, opportunities, marketing, central Tunisia

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Effect of supplementation by cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) cladodes on reproductive response and some blood metabolites of female goat on pre-mating phase







Département des Productions Animales, Service de Zootechnie et Economie Agricole, Ecole Nationale de MédecineVétérinaire, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunisie

2 Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourragères, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunis, 2049 Ariana, Tunisie.

3 Centre International des RecherchesAgricolesdans les Zones Arides (ICARDA), Amman 11195, Jordanie.

4 FondationNationale de l’Amélioration de la Race Chevaline, 2020, Sidi Thabet, Tunisie

Abstract – The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of barley substitution by cactus during pre-mating phase on some reproductive parameters and blood metabolites of goats. Forty adult goats of local breed were allocated to two groups based on live their weight. Each goat of both groups received 0.9 kg of barley straw. Goats on concentrate group (CC) received in addition 425g/goats/day of a concentrate (mixture of 80% barley and 20% soybean). Goats in the cactus group (CAC) received 256g of a concentrate (mixture of 68% barley and 32% soybean) and 2600g of cactus pads. Feeding regimes were applied on the average for one sexual cycle before mating and continued until 5 weeks after. Cactus incorporation had no effects on live weight and blood metabolite levels (glucose and total proteins) of the two groups. But goats receiving barley had a higher (p<0.05) plasma concentrations of urea than those receiving cactus pads. Reproductive parameters as estrus distribution, ovulation rate at first estrus (1.26±0.11 vs1.37±0.11 respectively for goats in CC and CAC groups) conception rate at all estrus (75% vs 90% respectively for goats in CC and CAC groups)and litter size for all estrus(1.46±0.13 vs1.27±0.11 respectively for goats in CC and CAC groups) were not significantly affected by the regimes.It is concluded that during autumn, the sexual season, cactus can replace barley on the diet of goats during 8 weeks around the breeding without any negative effects on live weight, metabolites and reproduction outcome.

Keywords: goats, cactus, ovulation rate, calcium, reproductive parameters

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Experimental study of the effect of water stress on agro-physiological behaviors of lupine at the face of climate change

Etude Expérimentale de l’effet du stress hydrique sur les comportements agro-physiologiques du lupin face aux changements climatiques








1 School of Higher Education in Agriculture of Mateur, University of Carthage. Tunisia

2 National Research Institute for Rural Engineering, Water and Forestry, Ariana, Tunisia

3 Regional Research Center for Oasis agriculture of Deguache, Tunisia.

Abstract – This work aims to evaluate and analyze the agro-physiological behavior of lupine culture under the effect of water stress. Four water treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively corresponding to 80%, 70%, 50% and 35% of the retention capacity were applied. The plant material used is inoculated lupine and non uninoculated lupine. The results obtained showed that for increased water stress the treated species reduced their leaf area and perspiration by keeping relative water content. For the moisture regime corresponding to 35% Hcc, treated plants synthesize higher amounts of proline. At the young stage; the control treatment and the treatment which corresponds to 70% Hcc have too low levels of proline which does not exceed 250 μg / gMF. At 35% Hcc lupine does not show a significant increase in proline. Depending on the inoculation, the results obtained do not show a significant difference in a plant inoculated and not inoculated. In the aged stage proline; accumulation is more intense than in the young stage. The results show a variation of the proline content as a function of the inoculation. In fact, the quantities of proline formed are greater in non inoculated plants than inoculated ones.

Keywords: lupine, agro physiological behavior, water stress, inoculation

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Duration of water deprivation in the warm summer months: Effect on reproductive performance of Barbarine rams





1 Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourragères, INRAT, Ariana, Tunisia, Université de Carthage.

2 International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Amman, Jordan

Abstract – Ten mature Barbarine rams were used to study, during hot season, the limit of the tolerance capacity of breed to water deprivation (one, two and three days) on male reproductive performances. Animals were allocated to two groups of five animals each, control (C) and deprived (D) rams. C rams had free access to water while D rams were deprived for 3 days followed by one day of hydration during 4 weeks of mating period (8 cycles of water deprivation). Semen and sexual behavior parameters were recorded every 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of water deprivation during the trial. This study showed an effect of duration of treatment on sperm volume (P<0.05) and concentration (P<0.01). On the other hand, D rams showed a significant decrease (p<0.01) of sexual behavior parameters on the 3rd day of dehydration (anogenital sniffing, flehmen, penis erection, reaction time and libido score). The present study provides a better understanding of the ability of Barbarine breed to endure more than one day dehydration and the response in term of reproductive performances in rams during the mating season which naturally coincides with the summer hot season.

Keywords: Rams, Water deprivation, Semen, Sexual behavior

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This article is published under license to Journal of New Sciences. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

CC BY 4.0