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Determinants of livelihood diversification of farm households in the province of Medenine, South-East of Tunisia.

Déterminants de la diversification des moyens de subsistance des ménages agricoles dans le gouvernorat de Médenine, Sud-Est de la Tunisie. 



1Institute of Arid Regions of Medenine (IRA), Laboratory of Economy and Rural Societies, Medenine, Gabes University, Tunisia

2 National Agronomic Institute of Tunis, Department of Agricultural and Agri-food Economy, Tunisia



Abstract - The livelihood diversification is a common practice especially by farm households whose livelihoods are vulnerable to climatic uncertainties. This paper analyzes the forms, levels and determinants of livelihood diversification of farm households in the province of Medenine. Data were collected through surveys of a sample of 100 reference farms identified using a typology of production systems in the province of Medenine. The analyzes were performed using descriptive statistics, the Simpson Diversification Index (SDI) and a binary logistic regression. The SDI was calculated to assess the level of household diversification and to classify households into groups according to those levels. Using the sustainable livelihoods approach, the capital endowment between household groups was compared. Results showed that the SDI was 0.52, which indicates an important livelihood diversification in the study area. Two groups of households have been identified: group 1 comprises 44% of the surveyed households with a low level of diversification (SDI <0.5), the group 2 represents 56% of households with high SDI values (SDI> 0.5). Results showed also that the capital endowment was greater for households of group 2. The logistic regression revealed that the farm size, the age, the education, the size of the household, the distance to the market, the dependency ratio and the value of agricultural equipment had a significant effect on diversification.

Keywords: Livelihood diversification, Farm households, Simpson's diversification index, Binary logistic regression, Sustainable livelihoods.

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Native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance plant growth and productivity of hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp nudum L.).






1Laboratoire des Sciences Horticoles LR13AGR01, Université de Carthage, Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, 43 Ave Charles Nicolle, 1082 Tunis, Mahrajène, Tunisia.

Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant (UCEIV), Université du Littoral Côté d′Opale, SFR Condorcet FR CNRS 3417, 50 rue Ferdinand Buisson, 62228, Calais, France.

Centre de recherche de l’est sur les céréales et oléagineux (CRECO), 960 Ave Carling, Ottawa K1A 0C6, Canada.

Abstract - A pot experiment was conducted to assess the growth response and grain yield of hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp nudum L.) to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) inoculation. Three inoculants containing native AMF species, AI1 (Funneliformis mosseaeFunneliformis geosporum and Scutellospora calospora); AI2 (Funneliformis mosseae and Funneliformis geosporum); and AI3 (Pacispora franciscanaFunneliformis mosseaeFunneliformis geosporumRhizophagus irregulare and Glomus tenebrosum), isolated from agricultural soils in northern Tunisia were tested and compared to a commercial inoculant CI (Glomus sp.). Our findings showed that native AMF species, in particular AI3 mycorrhizal inoculum, performed better than commercial inoculant and presented the highest values for mycorrhizal root colonization (53.3%), followed by CI (43.7%), AI1 (38.5%) and AI2 (18.5%) and growth parameters. AMF inoculation also improved significantly macro and micro-nutrient contents such as N, P, K, Cu, Fe and Zn in hulless barley plants as compared to non-inoculated. This resulted in higher total biomass and grain yield of hulless barley. In fact, total biomass of hulless increased significantly about 1.6 and 1.5-fold in plants inoculated with AI3 and CI. Moreover, the highest grain yield was recorded in plants inoculated with AI3 (4.8 g/ pot), whereas the lowest (1.9 g/ pot) was observed with AI2. The obtained results highlight the efficiency of the native AMF species present in AI3 inoculum. This study underlines the potential of using efficient native AMF inoculants to enhance growth and yield of hulless barley.

Keywords: Mycorrhization, native inoculants, hulless barley, grain yield.

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The creation of an Agricultural Development Group : an economic, social and united project

La création d’un Groupement de Développement Agricole : un projet économique, social et solidaire




1Université de Carthage, Institut National Agronomique de Tunis, 1082, Tunis, Tunisie

2Université de Carthage, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, LR16INRAT07, Laboratoire d’Economie Rurale, 2049, Ariana, Tunisie.

* : égale contribution des auteurs

Abstract - The agricultural development strategy in Tunisia encourages the creation of Agricultural Development Groups (ADG) with the aim of integrating rural actors into the local economy. This strategy is part of a process of equity with equal opportunities and collective profitability established by the social and solidarity economy. This study presents a women's agricultural development group recently created. This group involve 23 unemployed women that used a participatory and inclusive approach in the creation of their group. This paper presents a monitoring-evaluation study that estimates the role of the “ADG” in the local development of the social economy. Focus groups as well as field surveys were carried with the local population. The results show that the principles of solidarity and sharing are present among women. The principle of profitability is present but the access to solidarity financial resources does not exist. Close monitoring and supervision of this experience will be essential for its success.

Keywords : Social and Solidarity Economy, rural women, ADG, Tunisia, monitoring-evaluation.

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Animal carbamate Cholinesterase Inhibitors poisonings: about 11 cases observed between 2014 and 2017 at the National School of Veterinary Medicine (ENMV), Tunisia.

ntoxications animales aux carbamates inhibiteurs des cholinestérases : à propos de 11 cas observés entre 2014 et 2017 à l'École Nationale de Médecine Vétérinaire (ENMV), Tunisie.




1Service de Pharmacie & Toxicologie, Ecole Nationale de Médecine Vétérinaire 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunisie.


Abstract - Carbamate Cholinesterase Inhibitors are the most implicated pesticides in animal poisoning in Tunisia. Acute intoxication by carbamate Cholinesterase Inhibitors has been one of the main animal poisonings found at ENMV (Tunisia) in the Sidi Thabet in recent years.

This is a retrospective study that includes 11 cases of insecticide carbamate poisoning diagnosed at the Pharmacy and Toxicology Department of the ENMV Sidi Thabet (Tunisia) over a four year period (1 January 2014 to 31 December 2017), on a 21 confirmed cases of intoxication for a total of 71 suspected cases.The poisonings were all orally induced. Confirmed poisoning cases were due to unknown circumstances, criminal intoxication and accidental exposures. The species affected by insecticide carbamate poisoning are diverse: domestic carnivores, sheep and bees. Pesticide poisoning is a real problem in veterinary medicine, and preventive measures must be strictly applied to limit the incidence of these poisonings.


Keywords: Poisoning - Carbamate Cholinesterase Inhibitors - Animals - Tunisia.

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This article is published under license to Journal of New Sciences. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

CC BY 4.0