Etat des lieux des ressources génétiques bovines en Tunisie
A. HAMROUNI1, M. DJEMALI1, R. LAHSOUMI2, A. DRIDI1, A. NAJJAR1, Y. BEN SASSI-ZAIDY1
1Animal Genetic and Feed Resources Lab. INAT, University of Carthage, 43 Charles Nicole 1082 Mahrajène, Tunis, Tunisia
2Offifice de l’Elevage et des Pâturages. 30 Avenue Alain Savary 100, Tunis, Belvédère
Abstract - The objective of this study was to inventory bovine genetic resources and analyze breeding practices and their relationship with performances. A survey of 105 cattle breeders in the region of Béjà, Bizerte and Mahdia was carried out. The farms investigated were mainly composed of pure breeds, in particular the Holstein, Brown Swiss and Charolaise. The change in the national bovine genetic makeup is very remarkable. Currently, the total number of cattle is 593,000 female units of which 380,000 are pure breeds and 213,000 cross breeds. Cattle farming is largely based on smallholders (61%) who have a certain level of technicality. The first criteria by breeders for choosing cattle were productive performance and phenotype. The breeders identified another secondary criterion such as the adaptation of the breed. Indeed, knowledge of the selection criteria can contribute to the implementation of projects oriented towards improving the productive potential of animals. In general, animal performance was poor. The latter is a result, not only from poor feeding behavior, but also from a great weakness in the knowledge and skills of breeders in genetics. Unfortunately, the lack of consistency of national genetic evaluation and the absence of strategies to select the best adaptive animals in different environments can accentuate low productivity and consequently lead to unsustainable breeding programs in Tunisia.
Key words : Bovine, genetics, inventories, breeds, crosses