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Effect of feeding hens with fenugreek seeds on Laying performance, egg quality characteristics, serum and egg yolk cholesterol

H. Abdouli 1*

M. Haj-Ayed 2

S. Belhouane 1

E. Hcini Emna 1

 

1 Department of Animal production, ESA Mateur, Carthage University , Tunisia

2 Department of Animal production, ISA Chott Mariem, Sousse University , Tunisia

 

Summary - A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ground fenugreek seeds given to laying hens at 0 (FS0), 2 (FS2), 4 (FS4) or 6 (FS6) g/hen/d on laying performance, egg quality characteristics, serum and egg yolk cholesterol concentrations. Forty, 52-week-old, Lohmann White laying hens (10 hens per treatment) were fed for 7 weeks 100 g/d of a basal diet in addition to the specified ground fenugreek seeds amounts. While FS6 showed highest body weight loss at the end of the experiment (115.3 for FS6 vs 31.8, 28.9 and 97.0 g/hen for FS0, FS2 and FS4, respectively), there were no differences among treatment groups for daily feed intake (99.3, 101.2, 103.2 and 105.2 g/hen for FS0, FS2, FS4 and FS6, respectively), hen-day laying rate (83.7% for FS0 to 79.4% for SF6), egg weight (61.7 g for FS4 to 63.1 g for FS2), egg mass (48.6 g /hen/d for FS6 to 51.8 g /hen/d for FS0), feed efficiency (feed intake/egg mass, 1.93 for FS0 to 2.17 for FS6) and egg quality characteristics. Shell weight varied from 8.15 g for FS0 to 8.5 g for FS2. Shell thickness varied from 0.97 mm for FS6 to 0.99 mm for FS2. Yolk weight ranged from 16.5 g for FS6 to 16.7 G for FS0. Albumen weight ranged from 37.2 g for FS4 to 38.1 g for FS2. Inclusion of ground fenugreek seeds reduced blood serum cholesterol from 106.4 mg/dl to 85.8, 92.7 and 86.2 mg/dl for FS2, FS4 and FS6, respectively. It did not affect egg yolk cholesterol (21.4 mg/g for FS6 to 22.9 mg/g for FS0). It can be concluded that ground fenugreek seeds given to Lohmann White laying hens at up to 6 g/hen/d had no effect on feed intake, laying production performance and egg quality but reduced hen’s serum cholesterol.

 

Keys words :Fenugreek seed, hens, egg, cholesterol

Serum progesterone level of camel (Camelus dromedarius) according to the physiological status

M. KAMOUN 1

B. Jemmali 1

 

1 Department of Animal production, ESA Mateur, Carthage University , Tunisia

 

Summary - The present work was planned in the Department of Animal Production, Higher School of Agriculture, Mateur. Analysis of progesterone level in blood samples can be a pathway to define the physiological status of females. The progesterone level measurement can indicate an early pregnancy. 13 females and 01 male were included in this study, out of which primiparous, multiparous and heifers. In total 364 blood samples were collected, along one year, every 10 days. The blood samples were used to establish the pregnancy diagnosis. Serum progesterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. For gravid and empty females, the averages of serum progesterone were respectively 0.13±0.17 g/L and 3.99±1.26 g/L respectively. For growing female (category 1), young pregnant females (category 2), empty multiparous females (category 3) and pregnant multiparious females (category 4) were respectively 0.14±0.19 g/L, 4.25±1.31 g/L, 0.12±0.13 g/L and 3.55±0.87 g/L. Progesterone hormone is even in growing females, and its concentration started to rise after successful mating. Statistical analysis, with General Linear Model procedure and Multiple linear regression models, indicates a significant effect (P<0.001) of age, physiological status, pregnancy status on serum progesterone level and significant differences in serum progesterone levels between category (p < 0.001). The reproductive variables means value for serum progesterone in analyzed individuals, were significantly higher in the young pregnant females, pregnant multiparious females than those for growing female and empty multiparous females. Progesterone level for all analyzed empty female always low for all experimental period. It started to rise again after successful mating and remained high until the end of the pregnancy. Monitoring serum progesterone level can be a useful pathway to monitor pregnancy in camels.

 

Keys words : Serum progesterone, pregnancy status, camels

Diversité Génétique de la population des Poneys des Mogods du Nord Ouest de la Tunisie.

M. Mezir Haddad 1

B. Jemmali 2

A. Bedhiaf 3

S. Bedhiaf 4

M. Djemali 3

 

1  Fondation Nationale d’Amélioration de la Race Chevaline, Tunisie

Laboratoire ADIPARA, Département des Sciences et des Techniques de la Production Animale, Ecole Supérieure d’Agriculture de Mateur, Université de Carthage, Tunisie

3  Institut National Agronomique de Tunis

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie

 

Summary - The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity among Mogod’s pony of Tunisia. Ten selected microsatellites markers were used for a sample of 63 Mogod’s pony genotypes. The number of alleles per locus varied from 2 to 6 with an average of 4.231 alleles per locus. For the whole population, the average of alleles per locus was 3,385. The mean of the observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.004. This value was lower than expected with heterozygosity (He) value 0,508. The average inbreeding coefficient was 99.26% in Mogod’s pony population. Results of this study showed that Mogod’s pony population has two different ecotypes and indicated that the population has a low genetic variability and very high inbreeding coefficient. An urgent design of conservation scheme is highly recommended.

 

Keys words : Mogod’s, genetic, microsatellites, Tunisia.

 

Résumé : L’évaluation de la diversité génétique au sein de la population poney des Mogods de Bazina et de Nefza. Dix microsatellites pour un total de 63 individus a été utilisés. Le nombre d’allèles par locus a varié de 2 à 6, avec une moyenne de 4,231 allèles par locus. La moyenne d’allèles par locus était de 3,385. Le taux de l’hétérozygotie observée était de 0,004. Ces valeurs sont inférieures à celles de l’hétérozygotie attendue : 0,508. Le coefficient de consanguinité était élevé de 99,26 %. Les résultats de ce travail ont identifié l’existence de deux écotypes différenciés génétiquement entre la région de Bazina et de Nefza. La nécessité de mettre en place un schéma de conservation in situ et ex situ de cette population est recommandée.

 

Mots-clés : Mogods, génétique, microsatellites, Tunisie.

 

Comportement et stratégies d’adaptation de vignes franches de pied sous stress salin

M. Hanana 1*

L. Hamrouni 2

K. Ben Hamed 3

A. Ghorbel 1

C. Abdelly 3

 

1 Laboratoire de Physiologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Borj-Cédria, BP 901, Hammam-lif 2050, Tunisie.

2 Laboratoire d’Ecologie Forestière, Institut National de Recherches en Génie Rural, Eaux et Forêts, P.B. 10, 2080 Ariana, Tunisie.

3 Laboratoire des Plantes Extrêmophiles, Centre de Biotechnologie de Borj-Cédria, BP 901, Hammam-lif 2050, Tunisie.

 

Summary - In order to select and identify grapevine genotypes adapted to environmental conditions and tolerant to salinity, we analyzed and evaluated, in a preliminary attempt, the behavior of grapes varieties cultivated on their own roots against salt constraint. In this respect, six varieties have been considered (Superior Seedless, Syrah, Muscat d’Italie, Cardinal, Razegui and Asli) within own root culture assay that was conducted under greenhouse and controlled conditions. Thus, homogenous plants obtained from cutting were cultivated in pots filled with sandy soil and irrigated with nutritive solution added with 100 mM NaCl. After 75 days of treatment, measures were realized on the agronomical characters related to plant growth, photosynthetic capacity and physiological parameters related to plant mineral content. Our results showed that salinity tolerance of own rooted grapes is tightly related to the preservation of their original growth vigor, and the physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance are based on their ability to maintain the photosynthetic activity despite of the stress and the capacity to follow a strategy of chloride/sodium exclusion (especially in the old basal leaves) with restriction of their entry and uptake. Osmotic adjustment via leaf potassium accumulation (up to 1400 μmol.g-1 MS within Cardinal tolerant variety), salt stress signalization and cellular protection of components through leaf calcium accumulation represent additional mechanisms of salt tolerance.

 

Keywords: Osmotic adjustment, exclusion, salinity tolerance mechanisms.

 

Résumé - Afin d’identifier et de sélectionner des génotypes de vigne adaptées aux conditions de l’environnement et tolérant la salinité, nous avons dans un premier temps cherché à définir et évaluer le comportement inhérent de variétés franches de pied vis-à-vis de la contrainte saline. Pour ce faire, six variétés (Superior Seedless, Syrah, Muscat d’Italie, Cardinal, Razegui et Asli) ont été considérées dans un essai de culture sur franc de pied conduit sous serre vitrée en conditions contrôlées. A cet effet, des plants homogènes, obtenus par bouturage, ont été cultivés en pots remplis de sable inerte et irrigués avec une solution nutritive additionnée de 100 mM NaCl. Au terme de 75 jours de traitement, les mesures ont porté sur les caractères agronomiques liés à la croissance, la capacité photosynthétique de la plante et les paramètres physiologiques relatifs à la nutrition minérale. Les résultats obtenus montrent que la tolérance à la salinité des variétés franches de pied est étroitement liée au maintien d’une vigueur de croissance originale et que les mécanismes physiologiques de tolérance reposent sur leur aptitude à maintenir l’activité photosynthétique malgré le stress et leur capacité d’adoption de la stratégie d’exclusion (particulièrement au niveau des feuilles basales âgées) du sodium et celle des chlorures tout en restreignant leur absorption et accumulation. L’ajustement osmotique, via l’accumulation foliaire de potassium (jusqu’à 1400 μmol.g-1 MS chez la variété tolérante Cardinal), ainsi que la signalisation du stress et la protection des composés cellulaires à travers le calcium foliaire, sont des mécanismes de tolérance additionnels.

 

Mots clés: Ajustement osmotique, exclusion, mécanismes de tolérance à la salinité.

 

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This article is published under license to Journal of New Sciences. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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